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The Native American boarding schools were a system of government-run or church-run boarding schools that were established in the United States and Canada during the 19th and 20th centuries with the aim of assimilating Indigenous peoples into Euro-American culture. The key points of Native American boarding schools include:
Forced Assimilation: The primary goal of Native American boarding schools was to forcibly assimilate Indigenous children into Western/European culture and eradicate their Native identity, language, and culture. This was done through various means, including banning Native languages, customs, and religious practices, and enforcing Western-style clothing, hairstyles, and names.
Removal of Children: Indigenous children, often as young as five years old, were forcibly removed from their families and communities and sent to boarding schools, sometimes far away from their homes. This resulted in the loss of their family, community, and cultural connections, leading to significant trauma and loss of cultural heritage.
Coercive Methods: Native American boarding schools used coercive methods to suppress Indigenous cultures, including punishment for speaking Native languages, shaming Native practices, and imposing harsh discipline and corporal punishment. Students were often forced to abandon their traditional beliefs and adopt Christianity.
Poor Living Conditions: Many Native American boarding schools had substandard living conditions, including overcrowding, inadequate food, and lack of medical care. These conditions contributed to the spread of diseases, resulting in illness and death among Indigenous students.
Impact on Native Communities: The Native American boarding school system had a profound and lasting impact on Native communities. It resulted in the loss of Native languages, cultural practices, and traditional knowledge. Many Indigenous individuals and communities continue to face intergenerational trauma, loss of cultural identity, and social issues resulting from the boarding school experience.
Historical Legacy: The Native American boarding school system is considered a dark chapter in the history of Indigenous peoples in the United States and Canada. The legacy of Native American boarding schools is still felt today, as Indigenous communities continue to work towards healing, cultural revitalization, and addressing the intergenerational impacts of the boarding school system.
Recognition and Reconciliation Efforts: In recent years, there have been efforts towards recognition, truth-telling, and reconciliation regarding the Native American boarding schools. Some governments and institutions have issued formal apologies, and there are ongoing efforts to support Indigenous communities in healing, cultural preservation, and education. However, the impacts of the boarding school system are deep-rooted and continue to be addressed by Indigenous peoples and their allies.
1 Report details brutal treatment of Indigenous children attending U.S. boarding schools
12 mei 2022
2 American Indian Boarding Schools: A Small US Town Digs for the Truth | Foreign Correspondent
26 mei 2022
The community is trying to locate an old cemetery that was once on the grounds of the US Indian Genoa Industrial School.
‘A cemetery at a school is not the norm – that you could die and then you’re gonna be buried out the door?’ Judi gaiashkibos, Commission on Indian Affairs, Nebraska
The State Archaeologist is using ground penetrating radar to try and locate an old cemetery that is somewhere on the grounds of the former Genoa U.S Indian Industrial School.
The Genoa school was one of a network of institutions for Native American children set up in the 19th and 20th centuries across the U.S.A.
Their purpose was to assimilate indigenous children into the white man’s world.
By 1926, it’s estimated more than 80% of Native American children were enrolled in these institutions.
“We’ve been severed from our language, from our culture, from our practices over a whole course of time, but the boarding school era did a number on our people where we almost did not recuperate from it.” Redwing Thomas, Teacher, Santee Sioux Nation.
Last year, the discovery of more than a thousand graves of children at the sites of former boarding schools in Canada pushed the U.S.A to examine its own history.
ABC journalist Stan Grant, whose family was impacted by Australia’s assimilationist policies of forcibly removing children from families, presents this powerful story.
He tells the story of a community in Nebraska trying to uncover the truth about one of the country’s largest and longest running boarding schools.
‘We were taught in school about Native American boarding schools, assimilation’, says Genoa resident Nikki Drozd ‘but we weren’t aware of the cemetery…I didn’t stop to think about the children that died here.’
This month, the US Department of the Interior has published the first major government investigation of the country’s boarding school history.
It estimated that up to tens of thousands of children could have died while attending these state-sanctioned institutions.
‘We’re still looking for those children that died’, says Judi gaiashkibos. ‘I can’t rest until I feel I’ve exhausted every possible avenue to find the children’.
Read more here: https://ab.co/3lKkqgJ
About Foreign Correspondent:
Foreign Correspondent is the prime-time international public affairs program on Australia’s national broadcaster, ABC-TV. We produce half-hour duration in-depth reports for broadcast across the ABC’s television channels and digital platforms. Since 1992, our teams have journeyed to more than 170 countries to report on war, natural calamity and social and political upheaval – through the eyes of the people at the heart of it all.
3 Buried Truths: America’s Indigenous Boarding Schools | Fault Lines
24 nov. 2021
For roughly a century, the United States government forced Indigenous children to attend boarding schools far from their families and communities.
Hundreds of thousands of children were placed in institutions across the country, starting in the late 1800s and continuing into the 1970s.
The government’s goal was to prevent the continuation of Indigenous societies, attempting to strip the children of their cultures and punishing them for speaking their languages.
Those running the schools abused many children, and an unknown number never came home.
In June 2021, the federal government announced for the first time that it would investigate former boarding schools, including possible sites where children could be buried.
Fault Lines speaks with the descendants of boarding school students and those who survived the institutions themselves to learn how they are trying to heal from this trauma.
4 What will a US investigation into Native American boarding schools uncover? | The Stream
Live gestreamd op 13 jul. 2021
Now the US Department of the Interior wants an investigation with a focus on finding records of children who died while they attended the schools and locating unmarked graves. The investigation’s announcement followed recent discoveries of nearly 1,000 secret graves at three former schools for Indigenous children in Canada.
A modern and comprehensive study of boarding schools and their forced assimilation policies has never been done by the US government, and much of its history – including the official number of schools and its attendees – is still not known. Advocates of boarding school survivors say the institutions have been a major source of intergenerational trauma felt in Native American communities to this day.
In this episode of The Stream, we’ll discuss the legacy of Native American boarding schools and what a federal investigation of its abuses will mean to Native communities.
5 Ontario school with history of abuse linked to U.S.-based cult | School of secrets
12 nov. 2021
6 Schools tried to forcibly assimilate Indigenous kids. Can the U.S. make amends?
24 jun. 2021
7 Impact of Unresolved Trauma on American Indian Health Equity | Donald Warne
19 apr. 2019
8 Why Historical Trauma Must Inform American Indian Healthcare
31 mei 2018
9 New abuse revelations at U.S.-based cult tied to Ontario private school | School of secrets
21 jan. 2022
10 Colorado college reckons with a troubling legacy of erasing Indigenous culture
11 mei 2022
11 Native American Boarding Schools: A Lost History
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Native American Boarding Schools
9 jan. 2019
12 Broken Treaties: full documentary
19 nov. 2020
13 IN FOCUS Discussion: Native American Boarding Schools
3 aug. 2021
According to the National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition, nearly 83 percent of Native American school-aged children were attending boarding schools by 1926. The organization said that for more than 150 years, hundreds of thousands of Indigenous children were taken from their communities, punished for preserving their tribal identity, and forced to take on white Christian values, religion, culture, and language. It is believed that most U.S. citizens do not know about the existence of these boarding schools or the intergenerational trauma suffered by Native American communities.
In June, Secretary of the Interior Deb Haaland announced her department would be launching an investigation, called the Federal Indian Boarding School Initiative. It’s said to be a comprehensive review of the troubled legacy of federal boarding school policies and preparation of a report, expected to be completed in April 2022, detailing available historical records, with an emphasis on cemeteries or potential burial sites. This comes after the recent discovery of 215 unmarked graves by the Tk’emlúps te Secwepemc First Nation at the Kamloops Indian Residential School in Canada.
In an op-ed for the Washington Post, Sec. Haaland wrote that she is a product of “these horrific assimilation policies.” She explained that her maternal grandparents were stolen from their families when they were only eight years old and forced to live away from their parents, culture, and communities for five years. She said that the historical attempt to wipe out Indigenous identities continues to manifest itself in the disparities our Native American communities face, such as long-standing intergenerational trauma, cycles of violence and abuse, disappearance, premature deaths, and additional undocumented physiological and psychological impacts.
To this day, residential boarding schools continue to operate through the U.S. Interior Department and the Bureau of Indian Education. However, the department said that in sharp contrast to policies of the past, these schools now aim to provide a quality education to students from across Indian Country and empower Indigenous youth to better themselves and their communities as they seek to practice their spirituality, learn their language, and carry their culture forward. However, the process of healing, justice, and reconciliation is just beginning and it starts with bringing these traumatic events to light.
In July, Utah Diné Bikéyah sent a letter to Sec. Haaland to offer their assistance in the investigation. All 11 members of their board attended these residential schools as children and are now a network capable of reaching hundreds, if not thousands of other attendees. They are currently collecting stories internally and have a non-comprehensive list of resources and locations of facilities in Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado.
Denae Shanidiin, director of MMIWhoIsMissing and Angelo Baca, cultural resources coordinator at Utah Diné Bikéyah joined ABC4’s Rosie Nguyen for an IN FOCUS Discussion. They provided background on the history of residential boarding schools, the recent uncoverings of murdered children at facilities in Canada, the experiences of their family members and friends who attended these schools, how the assimilation left deep societal scars on our Native American population, the letter sent to Sec. Deb Haaland, and what they hope comes out of it.
16 Jim Crow of the North – Full-Length Documentary
03:17 Minnesota Leads Integration
06:01 A Black Family Moves Into A White Neighborhood
11:53 The Beginning of Racial Covenants
15:01 Mapping Prejudice
16:28 Who Benefits From Urban Planning?
19:50 Supreme Court Upholds Racial Covenants
20:59 The Invisible Color Lines
22:52 Citizen Terrorism
27:21 Redlining: Government Approved
31:15 Jim Crow of the North
34:16 Manufacturing Urban Poverty
39:05 Racial Covenants in the Suburbs
41:38 Fair Housing and the American Dream
46:00 1968 Fair Housing Act
47:39 35W and the Destruction of Black Communities
50:43 The Past Influences the Present
51:38 Mapping the History of Housing Discrimination
55:14 More Than Bricks and Mortar
56:30 Credits and More to Watch
17 Unseen Tears: The Native American Boarding School Experience in Western New York Part 1
4 nov. 2013
18 Unseen Tears The Native American Boarding (Residential) School Experience in Western New York Part 2
4 nov. 2013
19 Unseen Tears The Native American Boarding (Residential) School Experience in Western New York Part 3
21 Benjamin Madley – An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe
22 Blind Man Knocks Over Statuette Gag
2 mei 2011
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