The Nuremberg Trials – The Nazis Brought to Justice

What were the Nürnberg trials?

The Nürnberg trials were a series of trials held in Nürnberg, Germany, in 1945 and 1946 following the end of World War II. Former Nazi leaders were indicted and tried as war criminals for their conduct by the International Military Tribunal.


Crime against humanity

A very serious crime, for example murder, committed against a civilian or group of civilians, usually ordered by a government or other people who have political power :

The former leader is charged with genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.
The statute included rape as a crime against humanity when committed in armed conflict and directed against a civilian population.

Cambridge Dictionary
 More examples

They tried to facilitate trials of warlords who had committed crimes against humanity.
Unlike war crimes, crimes against humanity can take place during war or peace.
The concept of holding leaders accountable for crimes against humanity was born out of the Nuremberg trials.
Amnesty International has documented serious human rights violations and crimes against humanity by the country’s government.

Proces Neurenberg uitgelegd in 17 minuten

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5 jan 2019
The processes in Nuremberg marked the end of the regime that caused the Holocaust and were the first instance in history where an international court convicted people to prison… and to death. It would later pave the way for the International Court of Justice, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and two Geneva Conventions.

De processen in Neurenberg zagen het einde van het regime dat de holocaust veroorzaakte en was de eerste keer in de geschiedenis dat een internationale rechtbank mensen veroordeelde tot de gevangenis … en tot de dood. Het zou later de weg banen voor het internationale hof van justitie, de universele verklaring van mensenrechten, en twee Verdragen van Genève.

The Nuremberg Trials were a series of military tribunals held after World War II, in which top leaders of Nazi Germany were prosecuted for war crimes, crimes against peace, and crimes against humanity. Some key points about the Nuremberg Trials include:

  1. The trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany from November 20, 1945 to October 1, 1946, and were conducted by a tribunal composed of judges from the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union.

  2. The trials were unprecedented in their scope and in the legal principles they established. The defendants were charged with crimes that had never before been defined under international law, including crimes against peace and crimes against humanity.

  3. Twenty-four high-ranking Nazi officials were tried, including Hermann Göring, Rudolf Hess, and Albert Speer. Adolf Hitler, who had committed suicide in his bunker in Berlin, was not among the defendants.

  4. The trials resulted in twelve death sentences, three life sentences, four prison terms ranging from 10 to 20 years, and three acquittals.

  5. The Nuremberg Trials established the principle of individual responsibility for war crimes and crimes against humanity, which was later enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Geneva Conventions.

  6. The trials also established the concept of international law and the idea that individuals could be held accountable for crimes committed during times of war.

  7. The trials were controversial, with some critics arguing that they were victor’s justice and that the defendants were not given a fair trial. However, the trials are generally seen as a landmark event in the history of international law and human rights.

1 From the 60 Minutes archive: Hitler’s secret archive

28 jan. 2021

In 2006, Scott Pelley took viewers into the vast archive, which contained millions of Nazi Holocaust documents kept out of the public eye for more than 60 years.

2 Nazis on trial | DW Documentary

9 nov. 2020

The Nuremberg trials began 75 years ago, as high-ranking Nazis were held accountable on the basis of international law. A look back by a Holocaust survivor, by the son of Hitler’s deputy in occupied Poland and by the daughter of a defense lawyer.
In the final days of World War II, Adolf Hitler and his Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels committed suicide. But Hermann Göring, the Supreme Commander of the Luftwaffe, and other high-ranking Nazis were captured by the Allies and put on trial. The four wartime allied powers – the US, Britain, France and the Soviet Union – had already agreed to do this before hostilities ceased. As the first international tribunal to hold leading representatives of a state personally accountable for crimes under international law, the Nuremberg trials were groundbreaking in legal terms. But they also raised moral issues which rattled many Germans to their core. Niklas Frank had to come to terms with the fact that his father, Hans Frank, was going to be executed. Holocaust survivor Peter Gardosch mainly felt a sense of gratification. Renate Rönn – whose father was assigned to serve as a defense counsel – felt a sense of shame that Germans had committed such crimes, and that it was the Allies who ensured that justice was served, not the Germans themselves. Today, the Nuremberg trials are viewed as a milestone in international law that served as a model for the International Criminal Court in The Hague. Bettina Stehkämper speaks with Niklas Frank, Peter Gardosch and Renate Rönn about the proceedings and how the trials impacted their lives.
DW Documentary gives you knowledge beyond the headlines. Watch high-class documentaries from German broadcasters and international production companies. Meet intriguing people, travel to distant lands, get a look behind the complexities of daily life and build a deeper understanding of current affairs and global events. Subscribe and explore the world around you with DW Documentary.

3 The Twins of Auschwitz – Newsnight

28 jan. 2015

When the Soviet army liberated the Auschwitz death camp 70 years ago many of the prisoners had been killed or marched away by the retreating Nazis. But among those left were some twin children – the subject of disturbing experiments by Dr Josef Mengele, as Maria Polachowska reports.

4 Nuremberg Executions 1946 – What Happened to the Bodies?

The secret US Army operation to dispose of the bodies of the war criminals executed at Nuremberg.

5 CARING CORRUPTED – The Killing Nurses of The Third Reich

24 feb. 2017

Cizik School of Nursing has created a REMI Platinum Award-winning documentary film that tells the grim cautionary tale of nurses who participated in the Holocaust and abandoned their professional ethics during the Nazi era. The 56-minute film, Caring Corrupted: the Killing Nurses of the Third Reich, casts a harsh light on nurses who used their professional skills to murder the handicapped, mentally ill and infirm at the behest of the Third Reich and directly participated in genocide.

6 “They Gave Me Life” – The Story of Rina Quint

13 jan. 2020

Rina Quint was born as Freida “Freidel” Lichtenstein in December 1935 in the city of Piotrkow Tribunalski, Poland. In 1939, when Rina was three years old, the Nazis invaded and occupied her hometown. In October 1942, her mother and her two older brothers were deported to the extermination camp of Treblinka where they were murdered. Rina, who was not yet seven years old, was deported with her father to a concentration camp, where she pretended to be a boy in order to survive. When Rina’s father was murdered, she was left alone in the camp. She was finally sent to Bergen Belsen concentration camp. In the various camps she was interned she was adopted by different women, but they all died.
At the end of the war, Rina went to Sweden, where she was adopted by a Holocaust survivor who passed away a few months later. In 1946, Rina emigrated to the United States with an adoptive mother, also a Holocaust survivor, who after three months also passed away as a result of her poor physical condition. Rina was then adopted by a Jewish couple who didn’t have children. Rina earned her bachelor’s and master’s degrees in education and worked as a teacher in schools and, as a lecturer at Adelphi University in New York and at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. In 1984, Rina and her husband emigrated to Israel with their four children who were already married. Rina has been volunteering for more than 30 years at Yad Vashem where she meets with groups from around the world.

7 Whose Child Are You?” The Story of Tswi Josef Herschel

27 apr. 2017

Tswi Herschel was born 29 December 1942 in Zwolle, a small town in the Nazi-occupied Netherlands. In January 1943, the family had to leave Zwolle and moved to Amsterdam, where Tswi’s father contacted non-Jewish Dutch friends and asked for help for his newborn son. In March 1943, a Protestant Dutch family took in baby Tswi, caring for him and raising him as their own child until the end of World War II. Tswi’s parents were transported to the transit camp of Westerbork in the Netherlands in June 1943. One month later, they were deported to the extermination camp of Sobibór, where they were murdered shortly after arrival. Tswi’s grandmother, his only surviving relative, took him from his foster family after the war in order to give him a Jewish education. Tswi grew up, got married and had two daughters. In 1986, Tswi and his family immigrated to Israel. Since 1991, Tswi Herschel has told his story to young people and adults in Israel and Europe. 
With the generous support of: Adelson Family Foundation and The International Commission on Holocaust Era Insurance Claims

8 Surviving the Holocaust: Full Show

28 jan. 2016

[This video is available in segments (CC) at….] 
“You don’t ever expect to be hauled out of your house, marched into a gas chamber, and be choked to death,” says Irene Fogel Weiss. Yet, that is exactly what happened to most of her family in the summer of 1944. Irene was thirteen at the time, and by several twists of fate, she survived. 
“There is a life force in all of us that you just want to live another day,” she says. “Let’s survive this. We have to survive this.” 
Irene shares her story of survival with hundreds of high school students every year. In this program, we listen in on her presentation to Woodson High School students as she shares a personal account of the events that lead to the Holocaust. She discusses her life as a child in Hungary, the changes she witnessed as the Nazis took power, and all manner of degradations imposed on the Jewish people. Irene describes how her family was ostracized from society and how the Jewish “ghettos” were created. She discusses what her family did and did not know about Nazi practices across Europe and how the deportation of Jews worked. She recounts her arrival at the worst of all Nazi death camps – Auschwitz-Birkenau – and shares historic photos, taken by the Nazis, which capture the very day that her family arrived. She talks about the painful separation from her family and what it was like to be a prisoner at Auschwitz. 
After sharing the story of her liberation and rebuilding her life in America, Irene examines the questions of propaganda and humanity that surround the Holocaust. She helps students understand the importance of critical examination of information and comparing sources. She discusses how a basic lack of empathy and humanity toward each other can lead to cruel, and ultimately horrific, behaviors. Irene uses her experience in the Holocaust as a lesson for us all. 
A discussion guide is available at…
This program is archived in the Fairfax Network Video Library and is available as a high-resolution MP4 video to download, record, and save. Registration is required. For more information, visit

9 The Silence After The End | Destruction (Nazi Doctors Documentary) | Timeline

26 mrt. 2020

The silence after evil rings the loudest…
In KZ Auschwitz, infamous Nazi doctors as Mengele and Schumann performed horrible and mostly fatal experiments “in vivo” on thousands of deportees, women, men and children, in order to find ways of fast and massive sterilization of “inferior races”, and methods to promote the fertility of the German “Herrenvolk”.
Content owned and licensed from Scorpion TV to Little Dot Studios. All enquiries, please forward to

10 The Madness Of The Nazi Experiments | Destruction (Nazi Doctors Documentary) | Timeline

19 mrt. 2020

The Madness of The Nazi Experiments – In KZ Auschwitz, infamous Nazi doctors as Mengele and Schumann performed horrible and mostly fatal experiments “in vivo” on thousands of deportees, women, men and children, in order to find ways of fast and massive sterilization of “inferior races”, and methods to promote the fertility of the German “Herrenvolk”.
Content owned and licensed from Scorpion TV to Little Dot Studios. All enquiries, please forward to

11 The Crimes of The Auschwitz Doctors | Destruction ( Nazi Doctors Documentary) | Timeline

12 mrt. 2020

In KZ Auschwitz, infamous Nazi doctors as Mengele and Schumann performed horrible and mostly fatal experiments “in vivo” on thousands of deportees, women, men and children, in order to find ways of fast and massive sterilization of “inferior races”, and methods to promote the fertility of the German “Herrenvolk”.
Content owned and licensed from Scorpion TV to Little Dot Studios. All enquiries, please forward to

12 Surviving the Holocaust: Segment 6 — The Gas Chambers

3 feb. 2016

The number of people sent to the gas chambers at Auschwitz was staggering. Irene discusses how she was forced to sort through the belongings of people murdered in the gas chambers, how she watched thousands of people marched into the gas chambers day and night, and how the threat of being sent there herself was constant.
Suggested Discussion Questions: How much did people in Europe know about what happened at the death camps? How did Auschwitz differ from other camps? Why were children targeted by the Nazis? How did the prisoners cope with what they witnessed?

13 Alltag Holocaust: eine KZ-Aufseherin erinnert sich | Panorama | NDR

20 mrt. 2015

Ein Interview der Gedenkstätte Bergen-Belsen löst neue Ermittlungen gegen eine KZ-Aufseherin aus. Die 93-Jährige soll 1945 einen Todesmarsch begleitet haben.

14 Holocaust Survivor Shares Auschwitz Horrors | Edith Eger | Goalcast

29 okt. 2020

Holocaust survivor Edith Eger breaks her silence on her terrifying experiences as a teenager imprisoned at Auschwitz and other concentration camps. 
Edith Eva Eger was only 16 years old when she was thrown into an Auschwitz concentration camp. She came face to face with pure evil and was witness to the most unthinkable acts. Although she survived, she’s carried the weight of her demons her whole life… until now.

15 The happiest man on earth: 99 year old Holocaust survivor shares his story | Eddie Jaku | TEDxSydney

18 jul. 2019

In this beautiful and moving talk, the self proclaimed “happiest man on earth”, Eddie Jaku shares his story of love and survival at TEDxSydney 2019. Eddie Jaku was a Jew living in Germany at the outbreak and throughout the duration of World War II. His story of survival spans 12 years, from Hitler’s rise to power in 1933 until liberation in 1945. He saw death every day throughout WWII, and because he survived, he made a vow to himself to smile every day.
Eddie Jaku OAM, born Abraham Jakubowicz in Germany in 1920.

His family considered themselves German, first, Jewish second. On 9 November 1938, the night immortalised as Kristallnacht, Eddie returned home from boarding school to an empty house. At dawn Nazi soldiers burst in, Eddie was beaten and taken to Buchenwald.

Eddie was released and with his father escaped to Belgium and then France, but was again captured and sent to a camp, and thereafter to Auschwitz. On route, Eddie managed to escape back to Belgium where he lived in hiding with his parents and sister.

In October 1943, Eddie’s family were arrested and again sent to Auschwitz where his parents were both murdered. In 1945, Eddie was sent on a ‘death march’ but once again escaped and hid in a forest eating slugs and snails until June 1945 he was finally rescued by.

Eddie has volunteered at the Sydney Jewish Museum since it’s inception in 1992. Self-proclaimed as ‘the happiest man on earth’, he saw death every day throughout WWII, and because he managed to survive, made a vow to himself to smile every day.

Edie has been married to Flore for 73 years, they have two sons, grandchildren and great grandchildren. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

16 The deportation of Jews from Hungary and Lodz to Auschwitz Birkenau, 1944

9 apr. 2014

With the deportation of the Jews from Hungary and Lodz to the Auschwitz-Birkenau in the spring and summer of 1944, the murder in the camp reached its peak. This video traces the fate of Jews in the camp during this period, until liberation in January 1945.

17 Holocaust Survivors – First Steps in the DP Camps and a New Beginning

25 mei 2015

“This video is part of the Holocaust Education Video Toolbox. For more videos and teaching aids, visit:…

In the video, “Holocaust Survivors – First Steps in the DP Camps and a New Beginning”, ISHS staff member Sheryl Ochayon presents the story of the survivors, following the fundamental dilemma – “What Now?” – through to life and culture within the DP camps. She outlines the reality and remarkable phenomena within the DP camps, as well as their human significance in restoring a sense of personal identity and early steps towards a new beginning. The materials discussed in this video are available on our website and in teaching units produced at the ISHS.

Sheryl Silver-Ochayon is a staff member at the International School for Holocaust Studies, Yad Vashem.

part 1: The Return to Life in the DP Camps 00:00
part 2: A New Beginning 5:56

Archival footage and photographs:
Yad Vashem Photo Archive.
Yad Vashem Film Archive.
Yad Vashem Museum Collection.
Steven Spielberg Film and Video Archive, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

The Joint Archives, New York
Kibbutz Haogen’s Archive. Filmed by Yithak Herbert

Material and quotes from:

Study kit Return to Life – The Holocaust Survivors: From Liberation to Rehabilitation, produced by Beth Hatefutsoth, Tel Aviv; Ghetto Fighters’ House, Kibbutz Lohamai Hagetaot; Yad Vashem, Jerusalem;
Tel Aviv, 1995.

Yehudit Hemendinger, Perspectives on Holocaust Survivors. A Psychological Approach to the Study of the jewish People, Miriam Reiter-Tzedek, ed., The Institution for the Study of the Jewish People, May, 1984
Pinhas varshavsky. in Idit Witman, Unser Stimme (Our Voice), the first journal of the survivors, Gesher 4, 1987.

2. The Anguish of Liberation – Testimonies from 1945, edited by Y.
Kleiman and N. Springer- Aharoni, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, 1995.

3. Yad Vashem Archives

Every effort has been made to locate the copyright holders to obtain the appropriate permissions and apply the correct attributions. If you have any information that would help us in relation to copyright, please contact us


18 One Day In Auschwitz


7 apr. 2015

19 Nazi prejudice and propaganda – the racist crimes against the “children of shame” | DW Documentary

10 jan. 2021

After World War I, relationships between French occupation troops and German women were banned. But they happened anyway, and liaisons involving black soldiers produced a number of mixed-race children. Many were later persecuted by the Nazis.

Around 100,000 French troops were sent to occupy Germany’s Rhineland region in 1920. About 20,000 of these soldiers came from the French colonies of Tunisia, Morocco, French Indochina, and Senegal.

The African troops became targets of a harassment campaign called “Die Schwarze Schmach,” or “The Black Disgrace.” German political parties, the media, and many organizations tried to discredit French occupation policies by falsely claiming that black French soldiers were systematically raping German women and children. The presence of black, North African, and Asian troops in Germany was depicted as a threat to the “German race” and the future of European civilization.

Between 1919 and 1928, several hundred mixed-race children were born in Germany’s Rhineland region — the product of liaisons between local women and French occupation troops. These children, their mothers, and extended families were socially ostracized from the very beginning.

In the 1930s, these children became victims of racist Nazi policies. In 1937, Adolf Hitler secretly ordered hundreds of them to be forcibly sterilized. A special unit of the Gestapo was set up to carry out this task.

This documentary, directed by Dominik Wessely, tells the story of a forgotten crime. It also explains how propaganda and toxic “fake news” reports can create an environment in which horrific crimes can be committed.


DW Documentary gives you knowledge beyond the headlines. Watch top documentaries from German broadcasters and international production companies. Meet intriguing people, travel to distant lands, get a look behind the complexities of daily life and build a deeper understanding of current affairs and global events. Subscribe and explore the world around you with DW Documentary.

20 How Did Ordinary Citizens Become Murderers?


18 sep. 2017

What prompted average people to commit extraordinary crimes in support of the Nazi cause?
In the Holocaust era, countless ordinary people acted in ways that aided and hindered the persecution and murder of Jews and other targeted groups within Nazi Germany and across Europe.
On September 13, 2017, the Museum hosted a discussion to answer one of the most vexing questions of the Holocaust: How Did Ordinary Citizens Become Murderers?
Former New York Times reporter and award-winning author Ralph Blumenthal moderated this program with two noted scholars:
Dr. Christopher Browning, Professor of History Emeritus, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and author of Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland
Dr. Wendy Lower, Acting Director of the Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and author of Hitler’s Furies: German Women in the Nazi Killing Fields

21 Een reconstructie van het proces van Neurenberg | ANDERE TIJDEN

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3 jun. 2020

Op 1 oktober 1946 horen éénentwintig hoge nazileiders hun vonnis aan in het langdurige proces van Neurenberg. Het is de eerste keer in de geschiedenis dat schuldigen van massamoord en oorlog ter verantwoording worden geroepen voor een open rechtbank.
Andere Tijden, het geschiedenisprogramma over (bijna) vergeten gebeurtenissen uit de recente geschiedenis. Andere Tijden wordt gemaakt door de NTR & VPRO voor NPO2. Check voor de hele afleveringen.

22 Hermann Göring’s Mysterious Death

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27 jul. 2020

Hermann Göring, the most senior Nazi leader tried after the war, committed suicide the night before he was to be executed in 1946. But how had he managed to obtain a cyanide pill? This programme examines how it might have been done. 
Dr. Mark Felton is a well-known British historian, the author of 22 non-fiction books, including bestsellers ‘Zero Night’ and ‘Castle of the Eagles’, both currently being developed into movies in Hollywood. In addition to writing, Mark also appears regularly in television documentaries around the world, including on The History Channel, Netflix, National Geographic, Quest, American Heroes Channel and RMC Decouverte. His books have formed the background to several TV and radio documentaries. More information about Mark can be found at:…


23 — 3767 18 The Nuremberg Trials The Great Trials of World History and the Lessons They Teach Us

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24 JFL Hidden Camera Pranks & Gags: Electrocuted Puppy

24 feb. 2011


In this prank, bystanders are made to believe their negligence caused the death by electrocution of a cute little puppy.

A presentation of JustForLaughsTV, the official Just For Laughs Gags YouTube channel. Home of the funniest, greatest, most amazing, most hilarious, win filled, comedy galore, hidden camera pranks in the world!